Denver’s Original Green Fleets Executive Order (1993)

Key Sections From Denver’s Original (1993) “Green Fleets” Executive Order



1. The City’s total energy bill in 1991 was $20.8 million and is projected to increase, by 40-50 percent to about $30.5 million by 1994.
2. This increased use of energy results in additional air pollution emissions.
3. The City has shown progress in making its existing and new buildings more energy efficient and desires to step up a similar effort with its fleets.
4. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act require the 1992 Transportation Improvement Plan (TIP) to show a reduction in 1990 baseline emissions and future TIPs will likely have the same requirements:


This Executive Order establishes a Green Fleets policy for the City and County of Denver (City). Vehicles targeted for a Green Fleet are any vehicles in the fleet which operate on gasoline or an alternative fuel, and are rated at one ton or under.

All agencies which own/operate municipal fleets shall, through this Green Fleets policy, decrease fuel expenditures by an average of 1 percent per year (adjusted for fuel cost inflation), and decrease CO2 emissions by an average of 1.5 percent per year. The effects of these goals on miles per gallon (MPG) and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) per fleet is presented through the year 1998 as Attachment A to this Executive Order.

The base year for determining fuel and emission reductions is 1992 for all fleets except Denver International Airport (DIA). The DIA Fleet Manager will use 1994 as a base year. However, an inventory list of fleet vehicles for Stapleton International Airport (SIA) for 1992 shall also be submitted.


On an annual basis, fleet managers shall submit a draft Green Fleets Plan covering vehicle procurement and fleet operations and an updated fleet vehicle inventory list to a Review Committee (Committee). The Committee shall be appointed by the Mayor on a yearly basis and shall consist of members from the following agencies:

1. Department of Health and Hospitals
2. Budget and Management Office
3. Department of General Services (Purchasing)
4. Transportation Reduction Plan (TRP) Coordinator
5. City Council (non-voting)

and a Fleet Manager from each of the following departments:

6. Department of Public Works
7. DIA/Stapleton
8. Department of Safety

The committee shall develop any administrative policies necessary to perform reviews. The committee shall then review each Plan for completeness, accuracy, and comprehensiveness of strategies (See Sections II and III), before submitting the draft Plan to the Mayor’s Office for his recommendations.


Each fleet manager shall develop a 1992 fleet baseline (1994 for DIA) to facilitate the evaluation of annual Green Fleet Plans. Baseline information shall include:

1. Number of vehicles classified by year, make, model, engine size, VIN number, and drive train type (2-wheel drive or 4-wheel drive), rated vehicle weight;
2. Miles per Gallon per vehicle;
3. Type of fuel used;
4. Average cost per gallon (equivalent) of fuel;
5. Average fuel cost per mile;
6. Annual miles driven per vehicle;
7. Total fuel consumption per vehicle;
(Items 1 through 7 shall be provided by the Fleet Manager).
8. Vehicle function;
(Item 8 shall be provided to the Fleet Manager by the “user agency”).
9. Estimated emissions per mile for each pollutant by vehicle type/class (defined in 1 above) based on EPA tailpipe standards for the following:
Carbon Monoxide (CO),
Nitrogen Oxides (NOX), and
Particulate Matter (PM).
10. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) calculations based on gallons (or equivalent) of fuel consumed.
(Items 9 and 10 shall be provided to the Fleet Manager by Environmental Health Service).

Fleet Managers shall be responsible for providing this baseline data in a reliable and verifiable manner. The data will then be submitted to the Committee in conjunction with a proposed Green Fleets Plan (See section III below) for evaluation.

For Vehicles/fleets not on the Uniforce system, a comparable mileage and fuel log system shall be supplied. (either a computerized or manual system may be used). Any alternate mileage and fuel log system suggested, must be approved by the committee.


A Green Fleets Plan shall be developed using the required strategies and any/all of the options listed in section IV below. These strategies allow considerable margin for the creative development of a Plan which will have the most effective impact on each individual fleet.

An updated version of the Green Fleets Plan providing information which shows compliance with the average yearly 1 percent reduction in fuel costs and 1.5 percent reduction in CO2 emissions, and any projected changes in the Plan, shall be submitted to the Committee on an annual basis. An updated Fleet Vehicle Inventory List comprised of items 1-10 in Section II above shall also be submitted to the Committee on an annual basis, as supportive data.


Fleets shall address the following strategies in designing their annual Green Fleets Plan:

A. Reduce Fleet size (excluding DIA);
B. Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled; and
C. Downsize Vehicles to Increase MPG.

The following strategies are optional aspects of the Plan but are strongly encouraged:

D. Purchase Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV’s)
E. Increase the Use of Alternatively Fueled Vehicles; and
F. Reduce Off-road Equipment Emissions.

A detailed description of the six strategies follows in Attachment B.


Fleet Managers shall develop in-house training classes for drivers to assure a thorough understanding of the Green Fleets Plan. The efficient operation of the vehicle, the importance of and adherence to a comprehensive maintenance program, education concerning idling restrictions, smoking vehicle regulations, and driving courtesy shall be covered.


All vehicles shall be inspected at least once per year and if the vehicle fails to pass inspection, it shall be tuned. Should a vehicle not comply with emission standards–even after tuning–it must be repaired to satisfactorily comply with the standards, or be removed from the fleet.


The most innovative Green Fleets plan implemented shall receive recognition in an annual “Green Fleets Mayor’s Award”. A second award to recognize the most innovative individual contribution by an employee will also be given. To qualify, the employee suggestion must have been implemented in the Green Fleets plan. recipients for both awards shall be determined by the review committee.

The Mayor’s Office shall work with all affected departments and agencies of the City and County of Denver to ensure the effective and timely implementation of this order.


Strategy Descriptions

Required Programs

A. Fleet Size Reduction

The vehicles targeted for a reduction in fleet size shall include the following:

1) Vehicles driven less than 7,500 miles per year (using 1992 as the baseline year) to include passenger cars, light duty pick up trucks, vans and 4X4’s; and/or
2) Older vehicles up to and including model year 1984.

Vehicles in either of these categories should be earmarked for either removal from the city fleet through the vehicle auction, or put into the fleet maintenance motor pool for daily rental, unless their numbers add to more than 20 percent of the particular fleet in question. It is anticipated that these vehicles will be removed over a number of years to reduce the impact to the fleet. The determination of which vehicles are to be included in this elimination category (Not more than 20 percent of the fleet size), shall be at the discretion of the fleet manager with concurrence from the Committee.

No vehicle will be purchased to replace the removed vehicle. It shall be removed from the fleet data base, and the miles normally driven by the removed vehicle will be distributed to other transportation modes as described under “B” below. After the 1992-based initial reduction in fleet size, any subsequent reduction in fleet size will be at the discretion of the Mayor’s office.

Vehicles which may be exempted from removal shall include:

1) Emergency medical vehicles (ambulances);
2) Emergency response vehicles, (Bomb Disposal Units, Fire Trucks, SWAT vehicles, and snow removal equipment); and
3) Specialized function vehicles for which justification for retention can be made based on circumstances such as operation in a closed campus environment or limited/special use.

Justification for exemptions must be presented in writing to the Committee.

B. Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)

The City now includes 30 percent more land area than before the annexation of the DIA land. The following are recommended options to allow fleet managers to compensate for the projected increase in VMT due to this expansion.

1. Organize car and van pooling programs which City employees can take advantage of.
2. Encourage City employees to walk rather than drive to any nearby meetings, and to select local lunch locations.
3. Encourage alternative work schedules as an option.
4. Encourage telecommuting as a work option.
5. Where applicable and/or appropriate, use alternative modes of transportation, such as buses, carpools, vans, bikes and horses. (The Police Department currently utilizes horses and bicycle patrol units and Public Works has initiated a “pedal pool” bicycle program).
6. Where employees use their own cars for official city business, management should investigate current field operations and redeploy staff more efficiently to minimize the number and length of trips.
7. Vehicles shall not be driven unnecessarily. Plan trips to utilize only one vehicle whenever possible.
8. Investigate interoffice mail courier route to determine if appropriate for employee transit.

The City’s Transportation Reduction Plan Coordinator shall work with each unit agency to help develop programs for items 1 through 8 above. Ultimate responsibility for the Green Fleets draft plan, however, remains with the Fleet Manager.

C. Downsize Vehicles to Increase MPG

This category involves selecting vehicles of a smaller class size resulting in increased miles per gallon. Requests for new vehicle purchases must be supplemented with written justification addressing the need for a specific model and type. Fleet managers should determine whether or not a proposed vehicle could be down-sized and still complete its required function within the department.

For example, whenever possible, full-size trucks and vans should be down-sized to light duty vehicles. In addition, cars, vans and light duty trucks of model year 1984 or earlier should be targeted first for trade-in.

When purchasing new vehicles, MPG standards shall be based on the vehicle size within the following four (4) categories:

 Light Duty Cars  <3,000 lbs  27.5
 Passenger Cars
 for example: marked police cars  3,001 to 4,000 lbs  19
 2X4 Compact Trucks and Vans  19
 4X4 Compact Trucks and Vans  16

* These figures are based on a 75 percent city and 25 percent highway drive cycle.

Optional Programs

D. Purchase ZEV’s

The City has a Green Fleets goal which recommends that two percent of newly purchased vehicles be ZEV’s (electric or hydrogen powered) by the end of 1995. An emphasis shall be placed on solar recharging to encourage maximum CO2 reduction benefits. This goal shall pertain to the municipal fleet as a whole. These ZEV’s may also count as alternatively fueled vehicles described in Section E below.

[For a full copy of the original Denver executive order please contact ICLEI]